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El Shih Tzu
Ficha de la raza Shih Tzu
Longevidad: 10 a 16 años.
Peso: 4.5-7.5 Kg.
Tipo de manto: Largo, espeso, no rizado, se permite una ligera ondulación. Con subpelo moderado.
Colores: Se permiten todos los colores.
Tipo de raza: Perros Tibetanos.
Es el producto de cruces seleccionados de diversas razas tibetanas y miniaturas chinas, buscando exagerar los rasgos más llamativos. Es, realmente, un fantástico perro de compañía, muy entregado al amo y al juego. Necesita cuidados frecuentes en su precioso pelo.
Esta ilustraciõn no muestra necesariamente el ejemplo ideal de la raza
Based on the illustration from The Official Book Of The Shih Tzu by Jo Ann White. Interpretación del Estandar del A.K.C.
The Shih Tzu
Breed Standard Extention
Based on the illustration from The Official Book Of The Shih Tzu by Jo Ann White
Some texts & images by Wendell Sabile
The Shih Tzu is a sturdy, lively, alert Toy dog with long flowing double coat. Befitting his noble Tibetan ancestry as a highly valued, prized companion and palace pet, the Shih Tzu is proud of bearing, has a distinctively arrogant carriage with head well up and tail curved over the back. Although there has always been considerable size variation, the Shih Tzu must be compact, solid, carrying good weight and substance.
Even though a Toy dog, the Shih Tzu must be subject to the same requirements of soundness and structure prescribed for all breeds, and any deviation from the ideal described in the standard should be penalized to the extent of the deviation. Structural faults common to all breeds are as undesirable in the Shih Tzu as in any other breed, regardless of whether or not such faults are specifically mentioned in the standard.
SIZE: Ideally, height at withers is 9 to 10 inches; but, not less than 8 inches nor more than 11 inches. Ideally, weight of mature dogs — 9 to 16 pounds. It should also be noted that the proper dense and double coat may make a particular dog appear larger in size than it is in actuality.
Clarification - It should be stressed that overall balance and quality should be of utmost importance, regardless of whether a particular dog falls into the lower or higher end of the ideals set forth in the standard.
SUBSTANCE: Regardless of size, the Shih Tzu is always compact, solid and carries good weight and substance.
Clarification - A Shih Tzu should never be narrow or slab sided and should have a good amount of overall bone. Young or immature dogs should not be penalized for carrying less weight, providing the overall frame, bone and muscle tone projects a dog with good substance. When picked up, the Shih Tzu should be surprisingly heavy for its size.
Length between the withers and root of the tail is slightly longer than height at withers. The Shih Tzu must never be so high stationed as to appear leggy, nor so low stationed as to appear dumpy or squatty.
Clarification - The Shih Tzu should be a rectangular dog not a square dog. When judging whether a dog is of correct proportions, one must train the eye to measure the back from withers to root of tail and compare it to the height of the withers. The correct dog will be longer in back than it is tall. However, when the total length of the Shih Tzu is measured from the breast bone (prosternum) to the point of the rump (pin bone), the Shih Tzu is a rectangular dog. Proper head carriage, tail set and sufficient length of body will also give the desired look of a rectangular dog with a smooth, glowing and effortless gait resulting in the style and carriage so distinctive in ideal dogs.
HEAD - Round, broad, wide between eyes, its size in balance with the overall size of dog being neither too large nor too small.
Fault Narrow head, close-set eyes.
Clarification No individual part should take prominence over another. The individual parts of the head should combine to produce a pleasing expression.
EXPRESSION - Warm, sweet, wide-eyed, friendly and trusting. An overall well-balanced and pleasant expression supersedes the importance of individual parts. Care should be taken to look and examine well beyond the hair to determine if what is seen is the actual head and expression rather than an image created by grooming technique.
Clarification The Shih Tzu should never have a hard or stern expression. As the standard specifically outlines, the head should be thoroughly examined by hand to determine the actual size, shape and expression.
EYES - Large, round, not prominent, placed well apart, looking straight ahead. Very dark. Lighter on liver pigmented dogs and blue pigmented dogs.
Fault Small, close-set or light eyes; excessive eye white.
Clarification A dog may show some eye white, but it should never be so much that it detracts from the warm, sweet expression of the Shih Tzu.
EARS - Large, set slightly below crown of skull; heavily coated.
Clarification Ears should blend into the head.
SKULL - Domed.
Clarification The skull should be well domed and rounded or arched in all directions. The skull should never be flat. The skull should never fall away from the eyes. There should be a good amount of fore skull between and in front of the eyes.
STOP - There is a definite stop.
Clarification The stop is distinct definition between the skull and the muzzle and should be deep. There is no wrinkle such as that found in a Pug or Pekingese.
MUZZLE - Square, short, unwrinkled, with good cushioning, set no lower than bottom eye rim; never downturned. Ideally, no longer than 1 inch from tip of nose to stop, although length may vary slightly in relation to overall size of dog. Front of muzzle should be flat; lower lip and chin not protruding and definitely never receding.
Fault Snipiness, lack of definite stop.
Clarification When viewed from the front, the muzzle should form a square, being wide from top to bottom and from side to side. The muzzle should also be viewed from the side to be sure of proper nose-eye placement. Viewed from the side, the muzzle should be perpendicular to the skull. In order to have a square muzzle, it is extremely important for the jaw to be broad or wide. A strong, broad under jaw is integral in creating the proper expression as well as the correct muzzle shape. The muzzle cushioning contributes to the desired “soft” expression.
NOSE - Nostrils are broad, wide, and open.
Clarification It should be noted that the Shih Tzu is a Brach cephalic breed with a tendency for the nostrils to be pinched. Therefore it is very important that a Shih Tzu have the desired broad, wide, and open nostrils in order to have sufficient capacity.
PIGMENTATION - Nose, lips, eye rims are black on all colors, except liver on liver pigmented dogs and blue on blue pigmented dogs.
Fault Pink on nose, lips, or eye rims.
BITE - Undershot. Jaw is broad and wide. A missing tooth or slightly misaligned teeth should not be too severely penalized. Teeth and tongue should not show when mouth is closed.
Fault Overshot bite.
Clarification This section of the standard should be read in conjunction with the section on muzzle. In judging whether a bite is too undershot, the muzzle should be viewed from the side as well. A bite that is too undershot, when viewed form the side, cannot be perpendicular, as required in the section on muzzle. If, when viewed from the side, the muzzle is tilted back giving a "scooped faced" appearance, the bite is too undershot, regardless of whether the teeth show. If the bite is level or overshot, the muzzle will fall away or recede.
The ideal undershot bite is one in which the outer surface of the upper teeth engages, or nearly engages, the inner surface of the lower teeth. This bite is often referred to as a "reverse scissors bite."
The reference to "missing and slightly misaligned teeth" should not be used as an excuse to encourage poorly aliened teeth. It should be remembered that the Shih Tzu has shallowly rooted teeth and may loose a tooth at a relatively young age. The width of the jaw is more important than perfect dentition.
NECK, BODY - Of utmost importance is an overall well-balanced dog with no exaggerated features.
NECK - Well set-on flowing smoothly into shoulders; of sufficient length to permit natural high head carriage and in balance with height and length of dog.
Clarification -The neck should be in balance with the overall dog. A neck that is too long is as objectionable as a neck that is too short in that both destroy the overall balance of the Shih Tzu.
BODY - Short-coupled and sturdy with no waist or tuck-up. The Shih Tzu is slightly longer than tall.
Fault - Legginess.
Clarification - Short-coupled refers to the part of the body between the last rib and the pelvis. The Shih Tzu body should be approximately the same width across from rib cage to rear, when viewed from above. There is no "waist". The body is firmly knit together and should be slightly longer than tall. The proper balanced Shih Tzu should never be leggy or too short in leg. There will be some degree of tuck-up, but this should never be to the degree found in some Hound breeds.
CHEST - Broad and deep with good spring-of-rib, however, not barrel-chested. Depth of ribcage should extend to just below elbow. Distance from elbow to withers is a little greater than from elbow to ground.
CROUP - Flat.
TOPLINE - Level.
Clarification - The topline should be level, smooth and hard. Because a topline can be made to appear level when standing or stacked on a table for examination, particular attention should be paid to the topline when the dog is moving. The topline should be level when moving.
TAIL - Set on high, heavily plumed, carried in curve well over back. Too loose, too tight, too flat, or too low set a tail is undesirable and should be penalized to extent of deviation.
Clarification - An improper tail-set and or carriage will detract from the desired balance and outline of the Shih Tzu. The tail should be held in a gentle curve over the back. The tail should not flag or lay flat on the back.
SHOULDERS - Well-angulated, well laid-back, well laid-in, fitting smoothly into body.
Clarification - The shoulders should not be loaded (excessive development of muscles on the outside of the shoulder blade) or so straight that they protrude from the topline and interrupt the smooth transition from the neck, to the shoulder, to the withers.
LEGS - Straight, well-boned, muscular, set well-apart and under chest, with elbows set close to body.
Clarification - The front legs should be straight from the elbow to the pasterns. The forelegs should be well-boned, muscular, and well set apart to support the broad, deep chest. The elbows should never be out or loose.
PASTERNS - Strong, perpendicular.
Clarification - There must be some flex in the pasterns as it contributes to the ease of the trotting gait.
Letter "A" is "catlike" paw & has a very straight pastern. Straight pasterns are acceptable & commonly observed on functioning sighthounds & most terriers.
Letter "B" is down at pasterns & is splay-footed. Too much angle is a fault to most breeds except for GSDs w/c call for "approx. 25deg" (certainly wrong for breeds designed for galloping)
Letter "C" is the CORRECT answer. Pasterns - Strong, perpendicular. Dewclaws - May be removed. Feet - Firm, well-padded, point straight ahead.
This kind of pastern is ideal for trotting dogs, a slight bend serves as a shock absorber.
Source: The Official Book Of The Shih Tzu by Jo Ann White.
DEWCLAWS - May be removed.
FEET - Firm, well-padded, point straight ahead.
Clarification - The feet should be well-cushioned, and thick, and the paw pads should be rough. The foot is not a part of the leg and may toe out very slightly.
Letter "C" is the correct answer. Legs should be straight, well-boned, muscular, set well-apart and under chest, with elbows set close to body. Depth of ribcage should extend to just below elbow.
Letter "A" is too narrow. It becomes narrow because the brisket is flat or "slab chested". The elbows of this dog are also set below the sternum & will surely make the dog to move on a "single track" (convergence). Shih Tzu should not single track.
Letter "B" is bow-legged.
Letter "D" is crooked.
Source: The Official Book Of The Shih Tzu by Jo Ann White.
HINDQUARTERS - Angulation of hindquarters should be in balance with forequarters.
Clarification - The rear legs should be in proportion with the front legs in both the bone and musculature. The stifles should be well turned in order to provide the desired amount of angulation to be in balance with the forequarters.
HOCKS - Well let down, perpendicular.
Fault - Hyperextension of hocks.
Clarification - The hock should not be long and should be short enough to provide sufficient leverage for the desired strong driving rear movement. The hock should be perpendicular to the ground when the dog is standing. Some Shih Tzu have luxating or double-jointed hocks as well as a tendency for the tendons that hold the joints in place to be weak, causing them to buckle forward when gentle pressure is applied tot eh back of the joint. This is incorrect.
Letter "C" is the correct answer. It is well bent & the buttock is aligned in front of the rear paw.
Letter "A" has an exaggerated rear, it has too much angulation which makes the dog to be sickle hocked. The hindquarters are artificially stacked to make the hocks perpendicular to the ground that makes the topline appear sloping. Shih Tzu topline must be level & not sloping.
Letter "B" has a very straight hindquarters.
Source: The Official Book Of The Shih Tzu by Jo Ann White.
DEWCLAWS - May be removed. Feet-Firm, well-padded, point straight ahead.
FEET - Firm, well-padded, point straight ahead.
Letter "B" is the correct answer. Well-boned, muscular, and straight when viewed from rear with well-bent stifles, not close-set but in line with forequarters. Hocks - Well let down, perpendicular.
Letter "A" has weak joints.
Letter "C" is cow-hocked.
Letter "D" is too narrow.
Source: The Official Book Of The Shih Tzu by Jo Ann White.
ESTHETIC OR FUNTIONALESTIMATING ANGULATION
Illustration source: The Official Book Of The Shih Tzu
By Jo Ann White
How To Estimate Angulation: Dogsteps A New Look
By Rachel Page Elliott
When one talks about angles and bone lengths in a live dog, it is important to realize that there can be no exact determination. Figures are only approximate and judgments vary depending on who does the measuring, how it is done, and which bone prominences are used as landmarks. Muscles are never stable and appearances may change through handling, training, and general condition. Even as a dog sta...nds naturally, the slightest shift in posture or turn of the head can alter the picture. However, in spite of such uncertainties, dog fanciers will no doubt always attempt to assess angulation by means of measuring tools. A goniometer is a handy instrument for this purpose. Such efforts will at least serve to train the eye in what to look for, or the hands in what to feel for.
A common method for evaluating slant and placement of the bones in the front assembly is to take a line from the uppermost edge of the scapula (A)
to the foremost prominence of the humerus (B) and
go from there to the elbow (C).
As a general rule, the distance between these points of reference should look or feel about equal,
and if the front is balanced the elbow will set approximately on or close to an imaginary vertical line dropped from the caudal, or posterior, angle of the blade (D). These are not actual bone measurements, only landmarks that can be easily palpated. It is important that the dog stand naturally with its legs perpendicular to the ground.
Another way to assess angulation is to feel the scapula ridge that runs up the near center of the blade and
figure the angle of an imaginary vertical line dropped from the upper tip to the ground.
The slant of the humerus may be determined by a line from its upper center (B)
to its lowest end (C), not to the elbow.
These measurements will differ from those taken by the method described above, but the findings are more realistic as to the actual bone placement and joint angulation.
Note that a line extended upward along the scapula ridge concurs with the apex of T-2, which is the second of the nine thoracic spines (spinous processes) that form the withers. While slight variation may occur between T-1 and T-3, depending on conformation or shift in body posture, radiographic studies reveal T-2 as the normal location for the upper tip of the scapula in the average dog.
Dog A - Steep shoulder
Dog B - Straight upper arm
Dog C - Ideal front assembly
Letter "C" is the correct answer. Shoulder blade & upper arm are well angulated, the leg is well under its body & is aligned with the withers. Shoulder blade position is ideal which makes the neck appear long & smooth towards the topline.
Letter "A" has a very steep shoulder blade or straight front assembly. The blade covers some of the cervical neck bones that make the neck appear too short.
Letter "B" has the same shoulder angulation with letter "C" but the humerus (upper arm) is not well angled or straight which is ideal for squarely built breeds. You may presume that the reach of this dog is exaggerated and has a wasted movement. Sadly, this is the winningest type of front in the ring today.
In the hindquarters, length of the croup and bend of stifle and hock are more clearly visible, or at least are easy to feel under a heavy coat. However, variables in measurement can occur here as well, depending on how the dog stands; he may be crouching due to uneasiness or standing roached because of discomfort. Length and slope of the pelvic assemble can be approximated by taking a line from the forward edge of the ilium
to the ischium, or buttock. However, the exact location of the point of the buttock can be misleading because its shape and tilt may differ with the type of dog.
Pelvic slope and outline of the croup are not one and the same. While the outline of the croup and set-on of the tail may be influenced by slant of the pelvis, the outline seems to be more directly affected by the arch, dip or straightness of the lumbar section, together with the way the sacro-iliac bones attach to the wings of the ilium.
Buttock is aligned just in front of the rear paw.
Dog A - Straight Rear
Dog B - Ideal, well angulated rear
Dog C - Hyper extended rear
The correct answer is letter “A”.
Dog “A” has just the right separation of the shoulder blades.
If the dog lowers its head when standing, the shoulder blades go up and move closer. This Beagle is functioning well when tracking and the Labrador eats with ease because they have the ideal separation of the shoulder blades.
Dog “B” has undesirable separation of shoulder blades because it is set too close. Dogs with blades too close together sometimes must eat or drink on their knee since their head will not reach the dish when standing such as this Boxer. This is called “ewe neck”, also unwanted in horses since they are natural grazers, they need to eat grass with ease. Giraffes are natural ewe-necked to support its super long neck but makes them awkward when drinking.
COAT, TRIMMING, COLOR, AND MARKINGS
COAT - Luxurious, double-coated, dense, long, and flowing. Slight wave permissible. Hair on top of head is tied up.
Fault - Sparse coat, single coat, curly coat.
Clarification - The coat should never appear sparse or be sparse upon examination. The Shih Tzu undercoat should be soft and dense, and the outer coat should be somewhat harder and perhaps lay flatter than the undercoat. A single coat refers to a coat without the desired undercoat present. The hair on the head is generally gathered up with the use of rubber bands and a bow. The standard is not specific on how it is to be tied up, or with what. Therefore, sufficient examination of the structure of the head beneath the hair is crucial.
TRIMMING - Feet, bottom of coat, and anus may be done for neatness and to facilitate movement.
Fault - Excessive trimming.
Clarification - The hair between the pads on the bottom of the feet may be removed. The hair on the feet may be shaped or trimmed. The bottom of the coat may be evened or trimmed to ground length if necessary. The hair around the anus and the base of the tail may be removed. Excessive trimming sometimes involves removing patches or hair around the neck, shoulders, and chest with clippers or scissors and should be considered excessive trimming.
COLOR AND MARKINGS - All are permissible and to be considered equally.
Clarification - All colors and markings are permissible and no color or marking should take preference over another. Dark faces or uneven markings should not be penalizes and are quite acceptable.
GAIT - The Shih Tzu moves straight and must be shown at its own natural speed, neither raced nor strung-up, to evaluate its smooth, flowing, effortless movement with good front reach and equally strong rear drive, level topline, naturally high head carriage, and tail carried in gentle curve over back.
Clarification - The Shih Tzu in motion should appear as he does standing, with high head carriage and well-angulated shoulders, leading into a hard level topline with a high tailset. The front should move straight with the legs extending straight from the body with no toeing in or out, and the elbows should remain close to the body. From the rear, the legs should extend straight out from the body, and should remain close to the body. From the rear, the legs should extend straight out from the body and the pads of the feet should be visible. The Shih Tzu should never single track. The proper side movement emphasizes the balance between the front and the rear, and there should be no bounce or roll to the gait. The wording in the standard, “strung up”, does NOT mean the Shih Tzu should be shown on a “dead loose lead”. The exhibitor should be able to have enough tension in the lead to guide and direct the dog, especially young not fully trained dogs. However, a dog should NOT be shown on an extremely tight lead, which tends to lift the forequarters off the ground. Excessive speed in the ring makes it extremely difficult to evaluate proper movement.
Letter "D" is the correct answer. The Shih Tzu moves straight and must be shown at its own natural speed, neither raced nor strung-up, to evaluate its smooth, flowing, effortless movement with good front reach and equally strong rear drive, level topline, naturally high head carriage, and tail carried in gentle curve over back.
The reach should be as close to the ground (pads should not be showing) "padding is a fault".
The drive should extend well to the back (pads clearly visible) & must not go as high as the point of hock (wasted drive).
Slight convergence is accepted (at natural speed) but "single tracking" is a fault for this breed.
Since the breed standard calls for a rectangular dog, the pawprint left by the forepaw will most likely not be stepped-on by the rear.
Letter "A" - poor reach, strong drive - this dog has a tendency to sidewind or crab.
Letter "B" - poor reach, poor drive - yes it is balanced but it's not an ideal movement.
Letter "C" - poor reach, poor drive & very square in body proportion, this dog has a tendency to bunny-hop & might move on a wrong foot timing.
Based on the illustration from The Official Book Of The Shih Tzu by Jo Ann White.
AESTHETIC OR FUNTIONAL
Illustration: Dogsteps - A New LookThe “Class Winner” or the “Best In Show” maybe decided based on the judge’s preference; aesthetic appeal or fitness of the dog for its function. Dogs are being judged in the show ring on a limited scrutiny, it only takes an average of one minute per dog to be examined on a stacked position and to go around the ring. Endurance, speed, odor detection, digging ability and other essential functions are ignored. You wouldn’t wonder if a deaf dog bags the title.
Aesthetic or Functional, these are the two bases of a judge in selecting an ideal exhibit. It is a fact that majority of winners display characters of being magnificent, unique, strange and groomed to perfection. The best exhibit of a functional breed must be selected on the basis of what is believed to be optimum function.
There are more than four hundred breeds recognized in different clubs, they come in different sizes and proportions, there are square, squarish, rectangular, slightly longer than tall, shorter than tall, long legged, medium legged and short legged. But all these must be judged on a classical "trot" gait implemented by the show rules. It is a fact that not all breeds can perform a good trot because some of them are gallopers, runners, swimmers, diggers and how about dogs bred to pull? So who deserves to win? Is the sole basis is what pleases the eye? Does this mean that dog showing is a fancy?
Pleasing type of motion VS efficient motion. Where do you stand? There are show horses exhibited in bizarre eye-catching gaits that never seen in the wild, just the same with show dogs.
As Curtis Brown says, “It is no sin to require a dog to trot in a delightful eye-appealing manner at a dog show; most of us enjoy it and approve. However, if a person thinks such artificial style of travelling is functionally efficient, his superficial knowledge of locomotion is exposed. Let us recognize each style for what it is.”
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